What are the major climate agreements? How old are they? What do they contain? This article will answer all these questions, and more.


The Kyoto Protocol:

Signed in December 1997, it is one of the most important international agreements to combat global warming. It came into effect in 2005, and establishes a limitation to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the 38 signatory countries. Six greenhouse gases are involved:

  • carbon dioxide (CO2);
  • methane (CH4);
  • nitrous oxide (N2O);
  • hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs);
  • perfluorinated hydrocarbons (PFCs);
  • sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).

The objective was to reduce GHG emissions by 5% compared to 1990, across all sectors, over the period from 2008 to 2012. This protocol leads to the so-called “mandatory” carbon market, which is distinct from the so-called “voluntary” carbon market. The carbon credits of the LIFE Carbon Farming project will find an outlet in this second type of market, thanks to voluntary compensation.
Learn more about the Kyoto Protocol.
Learn more about carbon markets.


The Montreal Protocol:

The Montreal Protocol is an agreement signed in 1987 to reduce and then eliminate ozone-depleting substances (ODS), once widely used and responsible for reducing the thickness of the ozone layer called “ozone hole”. «Today, 198 parties have signed the protocol, which made it possible to stop the emission of 98.6% of SAO» (CNRS). “In 2016, the Kigali Amendment was adopted to reduce the most harmful HFCs by 80% over the next 30 years. This will prevent 0.2 to 0.4°C of warming over the century.” (CNRS).
Learn more.


The Paris Agreement:

The Paris Agreement was signed in December 2015 at the UN climate change conference. There are three main objectives:

  • Limit global warming to 1.5°C with a 2°C warming tolerance by reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
  • “Reassess national commitments every five years” (United Nations);
  • “Provide developing countries with financial resources to mitigate climate change, build resilience and increase capacity to adapt to the effects of climate change.”
    (United Nations)

Since 2021, this agreement has been ratified by 194 states and the European Union.
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